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Responding to service fragmentation: outcomes contracts and collaboration in cross-sector ecosystems of support

Professor Alnoor Ebrahim

Professor, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University

Alnoor Ebrahim is a professor at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Massachusetts. His current research addresses two core dilemmas of accountability facing social enterprises, nonprofit organisations, and public agencies: How should they measure and improve their performance? How should they address competing demands for accountability from diverse stakeholders? These questions are addressed in his new book, "Measuring Social Change: Performance & Accountability in a Complex World," (Stanford University Press, 2019).

He is also author of the award-winning book, "NGOs and Organizational Change: Discourse, Reporting, and Learning," and is co-editor of "Global Accountabilities: Participation, Pluralism, and Public Ethics," (both with Cambridge University Press). Professor Ebrahim presently serves on advisory boards to the Global Impact Investing Network and Acumen Fund on the topic of impact measurement, and he previously served on a working group established by the G8 to create global guidelines on social impact measurement.

Professor Ebrahim has also worked with the NGO Leaders Forum, an annual gathering of CEOs of the largest humanitarian development organizations based in the U.S. His previous research on accountability mechanisms within the World Bank led to a congressional testimony on improving the Bank’s information disclosure policy. Alnoor teaches courses on leadership and strategy, and also co-chairs an executive education program at the Harvard Kennedy School for the Schwab Foundation’s social entrepreneurs. Prior to joining The Fletcher School, he served on the faculty at Harvard Business School where he chaired two executive programs for social sector leaders, Harvard Kennedy School, and Virginia Tech. Professor Ebrahim received his doctorate and master’s degrees from Stanford University, and his bachelor of science from M.I.T.


Dr Eleanor Carter

Research Director, Government Outcomes Lab, Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford

Eleanor leads the research agenda of the GO Lab. Her research focuses on innovations in social policy and outcomes-based commissioning. She joined the Blavatnik School of Government in 2016 having previously studied at the Universities of Cambridge and Sheffield. Eleanor’s doctoral research investigated the application of outcomes-based commissioning within the UK Government’s welfare-to-work programmes.

Before moving to Oxford Eleanor gained experience from the policy-maker perspective working as an advisor for the Social Investment and Finance Team in the UK’s Cabinet Office and through collaborative research projects with the Department for Work and Pensions. Her work has been published in a range of journals including Social Policy and Administration and Journal of Social Policy.

Franziska Rosenbach

Franziska Rosenbach

Research Associate, Government Outcomes Lab, Blavatnik School of Government

Franziska joined the Government Outcomes Lab in 2018 as a member of the research team. Her work focuses on the UK government funded evaluation of Social Impact Bonds using a mixed-methods approach. She is the project lead for one longitudinal in-depth SIB evaluation. Alongside, she is involved in the knowledge dissemination to policy makers, practitioners and academics.

Her research interest focuses on governance innovation, studying the impact of social investment on social service delivery. More specifically, her research examines the development of new structures and processes to build effective collaborations between private investors, NPOs and the public sector. Beyond she has an interest in service innovation, investigating the co-design of services with users and citizens.

Her previous experience includes working in non-profits, the German central government and the UN in the field of refugee protection and development cooperation. Prior to joining the GO Lab, she worked as a project officer for refugee protection in a major German non-profit organisation.

She holds a post-graduate degree in public administration (Queen Mary University of London) and in law (Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich).


Richard Johnson

Chief Executive, Healthy Brains Global Initiative

Richard is Chief Executive of the Healthy Brains Global Initiative (HBGI). The mission of HBGI is to address the huge global gap in the understanding of, and services targeting, poor mental health (and its causes and consequences). They pool philanthropy to contract and pay for outcomes on mental health programs and also provide technical assistance to governments and other commissioners in outcomes contract/service design and performance management. They look to embed the voice of people with lived experience at every step.

Richard has been the Chair of ten Social Impact Bonds, including homelessness prevention, care for carers, refugee integration and supporting children at risk of failure at school. He is the Chair of a Development Impact Bond for unemployed Palestinian youth, with outcomes funded by the World Bank, and will be chairing a new youth Social Impact Bond in South Africa.

Between 2000 and 2012, Richard set up and ran three for-profit organisations delivering services with outcomes contracts, mainly contracted by the UK government and mostly targeting very long-term unemployment. Over that time his programs assisted around 1 million people.

From 2012 to his start at HBGI in 2022, he worked as a Senior Consultant with the World Bank across multiple countries. His biggest projects were shifting basic and essential health services in Afghanistan to new performance-based contracts and an outcomes-focused program in Ethiopia to connect refugees with jobs. He was also a Senior Advisor for the Global Fund.

Richard had an early career in international education. He studied Philosophy and Psychology at Oxford, and Applied Linguistics at Exeter.

Sarah Cooke

Sarah Cooke

KBOP Managing Director, Bridges Outcomes Partnerships

Sarah is an experienced regional and national Contracts Manager with a demonstrated history of working in both non-profit and private sectors across Homelessness, Housing and Justice organisations. After leading the award winning GM Homes Rough Sleepers SIB and a number of other innovative pilots, she is currently leading Kirklees Better Outcomes Partnership as Director. Proud Trustee of “Partners of Prisoners” charity with a passion for supporting rehabilitation and empowering individuals to achieve independence through innovative and asset based services.

val keen

Val Keen

Head of the UK Government’s Changing Futures Programme, The Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities, UK Government

Val is Head of the UK Government’s Changing Futures Programme which aims to improve services and systems to better support people facing multiple disadvantage. She has held a range of roles in Government including Head of the Centre for Social Impact Bonds and Head of Implementation for homelessness legislation and programmes. She also has extensive experience in the social sector including leading the delivery of front line services as Director of Services for homelessness charity Depaul UK.